Melanie Klein is the first psychoanalyst to analyse a pre-verbal and pre-Oedipal stage of development, that is, before the child starts to hate the father and wants to unite with the mother whom he believes to contain the father’s penis. In her Psychoanalysis of Children Klein gives a good example of how this adaptation to reality takes place:
The small patient will begin, for instance, to distinguish between his make-believe mother and his real one, or between his toy brother and his live one. He will insist that he only meant to do this or that to his toy brother, and that he loves his real brother very much. Only after very strong and obstinate resistances have been surmounted will he be able to see that his aggressive acts were aimed at the object in the real world. But when he has come to understand this, young as he is, he will have made a very important advance in his adaptation to reality.
Klein analyses the process of adapting to reality in terms of the child’s relation to his mother’s body. In the first year of life it is through introjection of the mother’s body as the embodiment of the external world that the child learns to relate to reality. At this stage the child sees the breast as the representative of the mother. The child projects his own reality onto the external world and believes that the mother’s breast belongs to him. When the flow of milk is interrupted the child becomes aggressive towards the mother and bites the breast. According to Klein this is the paranoid-schizoid position characterized by oral sadism.
Klein associates this attitude of the child with the dynamics of an adult schizophrenic mind. A child who cannot yet make a distinction between the inner reality and the external world is like a psychotic adult who cannot make a distinction between what belongs to his fantasy life and what to the external world.
A good example to this situation can be selected from the Hollywood horror scene. What we see in the Red Dragon, for instance, is a man who over-identifies with Hannibal Lecter, and becomes what Hannibal Lecter identified with in the first place; a psychotic serial killer who identifies himself with Blake’s Red Dragon.
The psychotic serial killer who believes himself to be constructing a work of art with stories of his murders, sees his criminal acts as the actualization of a prophecy, an incarnation of the myth of Red Dragon. It is through William Blake’s painting, Red Dragon, that the character is familiar with the myth of Red Dragon. Towards the end of the film we see him literally eating, incorporating, Blake’s original painting. That is when his total transformation from bodily existence to a mythological dimension beyond the flesh takes place. Until that point in the film he is governed by the Red Dragon, now he is the Red Dragon, which means that he no longer takes the orders from a force outside of himself. He has introjected the source of power and has become his own master against himself. And perhaps he even believes that his becoming is complete now.
- Psychoanalysis: The Unconscious in Everyday Life at the Science Museum | Maev Kennedy (guardian.co.uk)
- Emotional Muscle Creates Character (prweb.com)
- Sarcasm has always been child’s play | Michael Rosen (guardian.co.uk)
- Dr. Prudence L. Gourguechon: Madgirl Part 4: Lost to Follow Up? (huffingtonpost.com)
- Adam Phillips on the happiness myth (guardian.co.uk)
- BCC professor explores what scares us in horror films and books (pbpulse.com)
- Red Dragon Reconsidered (toddlyden.com)
- 97 reviews of Silence of the Lambs (rateitall.com)